Arboreal, forest singers, American Warblers (lat. Parulidae) is a family of passerine birds.
The length of their body is 13 cm, the length of the wing is 7, and the tail is 6 cm. chin downward from the corner of the mouth, as well as both sides of the neck are bright yellow, the chin, throat and goiter form a wide black shield, the rest of the lower parts of the body are white, with a slight yellowish tinge, the sides are decorated with wide black longitudinal stripes, the abdomen and back are yellow. The eyes are dark brown, the beak is black, the legs are horny brown. In females and young males, feathers on the chin and throat are bordered with a white stripe, as a result of which the black color is more or less fading.
Arboreal trees live in various biotopes, but in general they are forest birds.
They feed almost exclusively on insects, dividing different floors and corners of the forest between different species. Some species collect prey at the tops, some in the middle tier of the forest, some on the ground or near the ground. Some species are shrubby, others are mostly arboreal. Some examine leaves, others - trunks, still others - twigs, etc. During wintering in the tropics and subtropics, arboreal species form mixed nomadic flocks with other insectivorous birds.
Tropheus Moorii Caramba Red Bishop
This is one of the rarest Trophyus species. It is a direct relative of Tropheus moorii Caramba. These cichlids have a very interesting color: bright orange-red. It does not change throughout life.
The main requirement for keeping cichlids of the genus Tropheus is a spacious aquarium, but there are different opinions about its decoration. Most aquarists keep these fish in aquariums without shelter. Often only one flat stone slab is left in the aquarium, on which the fish are supposed to spawn. Other territories are not desirable, so as not to incite intraspecific aggression. Such an aquarium helps the breeder to keep the fish long enough to stimulate them to reproduce.
Another alternative is to design the aquarium so that there are many large boulders or similar stones placed to form barriers, various areas, hiding places and secret places. The bottom should be formed of fine beige-brown river sand, which is analogous to the wild habitat of this species. It is better not to plant an aquarium with plants. Trophies will happily eat not only your small-leaved plants, but also stiff-leaved thickets.
Worms, shrimps, fish meat, etc. are not recommended as the main food. Mosquito larvae should rarely be given. Experts advise feeding the fish flakes, spirulina flakes or pellets. Cichlids also love lettuce, spinach, young nettle and dandelion leaves, both fresh, frozen and dried.
Remember that these types of cichlids are prone to stomach problems. Therefore, they need at least 1 time in 1-2 months to carry out preventive feeding with the use of medicinal preparations or the introduction of medicinal preparations into the aquarium water in preventive doses.
Of course, fish need your love and attention. Don't forget to take care of them.
Number of species in "sister" taxa
|view||Singer whistling||Catharopeza bishopi||Lawrence|
|family||Arboreal (Forest Songbirds, American Warblers)||Parulidae||Wetmore||1947|
|suborder / suborder||Singers||Oscines|
|detachment / order||Passerines||Passeriformes|
|superorder / superorder||New Sky Birds (Typical Birds)||Neognathae||Pycroft||1900|
|infraclass||Real birds (Fan-tailed birds)||Neornithes||Gadow||1893|
|subclass||Cilegrud Birds (Fantail Birds)||Carinatae Ornithurae (Neornithes) Ornithurae (Neornithes)||Merrem||1813|
|subtype / subdivision||Vertebrates (Cranial)||Vertebrata (Craniata)||Cuvier||1800|
|type / department||Chordates||Chordata|
|section||Bilaterally symmetrical (Three-layer)||Bilateria (Triploblastica)|
Interspecific bird conflicts are explained by competition and hybridization
Many animals jealously guard their territory from the invasion of strangers. This is logical when it comes to a representative of its own species. However, an individual belonging to a different species often becomes the object of attack. For a long time, it was believed that such interspecific territoriality was just a by-product of the intraspecific one. In other words, the owner attacks the stranger by mistake, mistaking him for a relative.
However, new evidence suggests that protecting an area from other species is adaptive. It can arise and persist when different species compete for a particular resource, such as food or shelter.
A team of zoologists led by Jonathan P. Drury of the University of Durham conducted a massive study of interspecies competition for territory using the example of North American passerines. After analyzing the literature, scientists found that this behavior is typical for 104 of their species. This is 32.3 percent of the total number of passerine species in North America. Thus, interspecies competition is more widespread than previously thought.
According to the authors, in most cases, birds come into conflict over territory with a representative of one specific species. There are several factors that increase the chances of forming a pair of competing species. For example, birds that live in the same biotope, have similar sizes and nest in hollows are more likely to be involved in conflicts over territory. For species belonging to the same family, another factor plays an important role - the probability of hybridization. If two species are capable of interbreeding with each other, their males are likely to react aggressively to each other.
Based on the data obtained, the researchers concluded that interspecific conflicts for territory among birds do not arise at all by mistake. This behavior is an adaptive response to competition for a limited resource, as well as a mechanism to prevent hybridization between closely related species.