Bird Families

Yellow-bellied Long-billed Honeymooner / Toxorhamphus novaeguineae


Would you like to have an exotic and beautiful fish in your aquarium? Then pay attention to the surgeon. The surgeon fish (Latin Acanthurus Forsskål) is very beautiful, looks great in a reef aquarium and does not need very complicated maintenance. On the other hand, the surgeon fish is not recommended for beginners and can be dangerous.

Fish surgeon

On a note! Surgeons are among the most common and favorite fish in the marine aquarium. Spectacular and rather unpretentious pets belonging to the Surgeon family.

Appearance and species of surgeon fish

The body of surgeons is ovoid, compressed from the sides. The length of the fish can reach 40 cm, but among the variety of species there are also huge specimens, the size of which is close to 1 m.As for the size of the surgeon in the aquarium, this is usually no more than 16-18 cm.Distinguishing features of the surgeon are a sloping forehead, long anal and dorsal fins. Thanks to their large eyes, the fish are excellently oriented in dark waters.

Surgeon blue (royal) Paracanthurus hepatus

The family of Surgeons includes more than 70 species. Let's get acquainted with those that are most popular among aquarists.

Table. Popular types of surgeon fish.

Name, photoShort description
Royal blue surgeonAn interesting feature of this species is that its representatives hide in crevices and lie on their side during sleep.
Yellow surgeonVery attractive, brightly colored. Thanks to this, it is very popular.
Blue white-breasted surgeonThe body is tall, the color is very characteristic: the head is black, there is a white ring around the lips, and the rest of the body has a bright sky-blue color.
Clown surgeonIt is considered the most aggressive type of surgeon fish. Coloring is variable: the main body color is yellowish or gray, along the edge of the tail there is a white stripe, a black tail spine.
Sailing surgeonA large fish with huge anal and dorsal fins (when extended, they are comparable to the body). The color scheme may vary, but the characteristic pattern is always present.
Arab surgeonIt got its name from its characteristic steel color. Looks luxurious, with thin black stripes on the head and sides. The fish is known for its extremely aggressive disposition, which is what many aquarists like.
Japanese surgeonA fish with a bronze-brown (in places - blue) body. Yellow stripes extend from the tail, and a large orange stripe extends from the dorsal fin. Knows how to quickly adapt. It feeds mainly on plant foods.

note! In general, all types of surgeon fish have a similar appearance. Only the color can be different - estuary, red, blue, with ornaments and shades ... On the sides there are sharp, dangerous thorns, similar in appearance to a razor blade. It is because of this that the fish are called surgeons (another name for the thorn is a surgical scalpel).

Acanthurus sohal surgeon

If there is no danger nearby, the spikes are in a special pocket, but if necessary, they straighten out for protection.

Another feature is the presence of sharp thorns At rest, the spikes are hidden in special grooves

Living in nature

Surgeon fish are found in the waters of the Red Sea, Great Barrier Reef, Pacific Ocean in New Caledonia and Samoa. Preference is given to the outer slopes of coral reefs, settling between corals and in rocky crevices at a depth of 40 m. As for fry, they usually live in schools, while adults - singly or in pairs.

Seeing with your own eyes a flock of surgeons is an unsurpassed aesthetic pleasure

The surgeon naturally feeds on plant foods - detritus, algae - and aquatic animals.

Read also: Aquarium fish loach. In addition, you will probably be interested in an article on how to properly feed fish in an aquarium.

Fish surgeon: keeping in the aquarium

Almost all surgeons end up in pet stores straight from the ocean, and therefore have to go through a difficult path of adaptation. To help them in this, it is necessary to provide optimal conditions of detention.

Black-back surgeon (horseshoe surgeon) Acanthurus fowleri

Aquarium requirements

The aquarium for the surgeon should be roomy enough, since the fish need an impressive space for free swimming. For one individual, these are:

  • volume from 300 l,
  • height 45-50 cm,
  • width not less than 40 cm,
  • length from 50 cm.

It is important that the water in the aquarium is always of high quality, otherwise the surgeon will become susceptible to various diseases. To keep the water clean, we recommend installing powerful internal filter... The water needs to be changed every week by about 30-50% of the total.

Such an instance will be a genuine decoration of a reef aquarium.

To make the surgeon comfortable in the aquarium, it is worth adhering to the following water parameters:

  • temperature - 23-27 ° С,
  • hardness - 8-12 dH,
  • acidity - 8-8.4 pH,
  • density - 1,024 units.

The content of aluminum and ammonia in water should be close to zero. The lighting should be bright enough.

An ocean dweller with a lively disposition, accustomed to space, will need a volumetric container

On a note! One of the features of the surgeon fish is the property to turn pale. But don't worry, this is just a natural defensive reaction.

Hawaiian Ctenochaetus Surgeon Ctenochaetus hawaiienensis

Living stones in the aquarium will not only be beautiful, but also useful. So the capacity will be as close as possible to the natural ecosystem of the coral reef. You can also use polyps, sea sponges. As for plants, there should not be too many of them in the aquarium (caulerps, hatamorphs), because surgeons, as noted above, love space.

As for greenery, there are two requirements: plants should not take up too much space and among them there must be specimens with fairly wide foliage, which will be used during spawning

What to feed?

Surgeons are herbivores and love to eat well. Feed the fish in small portions 3 times a day. Most of the diet is various plant foods (dandelion leaves, algae, lettuce, scalded with boiling water). To make it more convenient to feed the fish with nori algae, you can use a special clip - it is attached to the glass with a suction cup and holds the food.

note! Since the surgeons eat the contents of the reefs and aquarium algae, the plants must be permanently renewed, remembering to carefully monitor the cleanliness of the tank.

You can also use dry food. In any case, 1/3 of the fish diet should consist of live food, most suitable:

  • shrimp,
  • squid meat,
  • mussels.
Feeding fish with mussels

Thanks to good nutrition, the immune system of the surgeons will be strengthened, and the color will be more saturated.

Ⓘ Melanocharitidae

  • Long-tailed fruit eater Melanocharis longicauda Salvadori 1876
  • Dark fruit eater Melanocharis arfakiana Finsch 1900
  • Melanocharis crassirostris Salvadori 1876
  • Fruit eaters Melanocharis Sclater, 1858
  • Magpie fruit eater Melanocharis versteri Finsch 1876
  • Black fruit eater Melanocharis nigra Lesson 1830
  • Pied-bellied fruit eater Melanocharis striativentris Salvadori 1894
  • Edystomas Oedistoma Salvadori, 1876
  • Small edystoma Oedistoma iliolophum, Toxorhamphus iliolophus Salvadori 1876
  • Little edystoma Oedistoma pygmaeum Salvadori 1876
  • Long-billed honey suckers Toxorhamphus Stresemann, 1914
  • Gray-throated long-billed honey sucker Toxorhamphus poliopterus Sharpe 1882
  • Yellow-bellied long-billed honey sucker Toxorhamphus novaeguineae Lesson 1827
  • it was determined that the closest relatives of red-faced nuthatches are Melanocharitidae and whistler Pachycephalidae Therefore, according to the Sibley-Alqvist classification
  • Shrike Waxwing Tanager Thymelia Wagtail Flower-eating Cystolic Bristle Shrike Melanocharitidae Paramythiidae Ptilogonatidae
  • Shrike Hypocoliidae Tropial Icteridae Black berry beetle Melanocharitidae Mockingbird Mimidae Mohoidae Wagtail Motacillidae Flycatcher

Article source:

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Famlia Melanocharitidae. Famlia Paramythiidae. Famlia Passeridae. Subfamlia Motacillinae. Subfamlia Prunellinae Subfamlia Ploceinae. Famlia Estrildidae. Order Not assigned 178 families. The site provides a variety of information about domestic and wild animals: species, care, maintenance, feeding, treatment. And also fairy tales for.

Birds of the passerine order are passerine representatives.

The family Black Berry Eaters Melanocharitidae includes genera of small birds from New Guinea and Indonesia, which previously belonged to the family. Black Berry Eaters Melanocharitidae Zoological Forum. Melanocharitidae is a family of birds of the Passeriformes order. Sparrow-like. Melanotus Melanophila Melanocallis Melanotus castanipes Melanotinae Melanoxanthus Melitoma Melanocharitidae Melitomella Melanoblossidae.

Presentation on the topic: Morpho functional features.

Wagtail Motacillidae, Accentorids Prunellidae, Black berry beetles Melanocharitidae, Dwarf honey badgers Paramythiidae ,. Phylogeny and classification of passerine birds. Book: Meghnad Saha. Book: Meillerwagen. Book: Melaleuca. Book: Melanocharitidae. Book: Meliobba. Book: Mellified man. Book: Melvyn Bragg. Family Black Berry Eaters Melanocharitidae. Family: Melanocharitidae. Genus. Melanocharis. 557876. Club of People and Birds. FORUMS Knowledge base navigator. Melanocharitidae Family Melanocharitidae, Fruit eaters, Black berry beetles, Family Melanocharitidae. Representative of the Family Meliphagidae. Pin by Marina on bird board with images. Swallow Hirundinidae Wormwood shrikes Hypocoliidae Trupial Icteridae Black berry beetles Melanocharitidae.

Sparrow with video 2.

Melanocharitidae photo, description, taxonomy LifeCatalog. Taxon rank Taxon name Taxon code in ITIS Kingdom. Fan tailed Berrypecker is found in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Melanocharitidae family. Cecie JayBirds: Assorted White crested Laughingthrush by. Publication of the teacher on the topic How fragile this world is. Pedagogical development. Nuthatches are Melanocharitidae and Whistler Pachycephalidae Therefore, according to the classification of Sibley Alqvist, the genus Mohuaalat. Mohoua. Frederic P. Miller, Agnes F. Vandome, John McBrewster. Accentorids Prunellidae Black berry beetles Melanocharitidae Dwarf honey beetles Paramythiidae Passeriformes Passeridae. Modern classification of birds BirdsGuide. Family Melanocharitidae Family Meliphagidae Lyrebird family Menuridae Mockingbird family Mimidae.

Taxonomia: Passeriformes e uma ordem da classe Aves Tetrapodes.

Book by Frederic P. Miller, Agnes F. Vandome, John McBrewster Melanocharitidae buy today with delivery and guarantee at a bargain price. Frederic P. English via Savitri Course 2 Savitri Morning Dew. Family Melanocharitidae 10 spp est? Family Meliphagidae 173 spp est? Family Menuridae 2 spp est? Family Mimidae 35 spp est ?. Melanocharitidae is What is Melanocharitidae ?. Birds Ptilonorhynchidae Family Black berry beetles Melanocharitidae Order Loons Gaviiformes Family Loons Gaviidae.

Melanocharitidae Wikiz.

21 Dasyornithidae 22 Pardalotidae 23 Acanthizidae 24 Pomatostomidae 25 Orthonychidae 26 Cnemophilidae 27 Melanocharitidae 28 Paramythiidae 29. Fruit eater family Melanocharitidae Parrots and other birds. Today they are provided with their own family in a clade close to the berrypeckers and longbills Melanocharitidae and the Pachycephalidae whistlers.

Systematics Family: Melanocharitidae.

Detailed characteristics of the book by Frederic P. Miller, Agnes F. Vandome, John McBrewster Melanocharitidae with a description of all the features. And. The science. History of Science. and 642 -. The superfamily Passeroidea consists of the families of passerines Passeridae, finches, paramitia Paramythiidae, fructoed Melanocharitidae,.

Order passerine representatives: genus of passerine birds.

Tanager Thymus Wagtail Flower-eating Cystolic Bristle shrike Melanocharitidae Paramythiidae Ptilogonatidae. Melanocharitidae LifeCatalog. Melanocharitidae is a family of birds of the Passeriformes order. Melanocharitidae Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class :. Passerine. Laniidae. Machaerirhynchidae. Machaerirhynchidae. Malaconotidae. Malaconotidae. Maluridae. Maluridae. Melanocharitidae. Melanocharitidae. Meliphagidae. Characteristics of the book by Frederic P. Miller, Agnes F. Vandome, John. Black berry beetles Melanocharitidae.

Whistler birds.

Family Black Berry Eaters Melanocharitidae Order Loons Gaviiformes Family Loons Gaviidae Order Dove-like. Systematics of Birds Wildlife. Through google I found on Wikipedia that longbill is such a bird: http: en. pedia. org Melanocharitidae. According to the image, this is a sunbird. Presentation: Sparrow Social Network of Workers.

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Description of the animal

Brief description of the Red-bellied toad:

A typeChordates
SquadTailless amphibians
ViewRed bellied toad
International scientific nameBombina bombina Linnaeus
OpenIn 1761
Conservation statusLeast Concern
HabitatFrom Central and Eastern Europe to the Urals

What does it look like

The red-bellied toad is an amphibian of small size, with a body length of no more than 6 cm. Females are usually slightly larger than males in size, but individuals of both sexes are the same in weight.

Terrarium and aquarists love toads for their specific beautiful color. The upper part of the body of the amphibian is painted in a very dark, almost black color and is decorated with greenish spots of different shades.

The abdomen of the frog is red, and the spots on it can merge with each other or be located separately. The color of the spots is deep black with a purple tint and white blotches on the surface. Males have paired internal resonators.

The red color in the toad's abdomen warns other animals of the danger. Exposing its red belly up, the unka thus says that it cannot be eaten - it is poisonous.


The taxonomy of the Toad family includes, in addition to the red-bellied frog, three more types of frogs:

  • Far Eastern toad. Lives in the Far East, China and Korea. In color, it resembles a red-bellied one, but the abdomen of Far Eastern amphibians is orange, and the specks on it are smaller.
  • Yellow-bellied toad. Occupies the territory of the Carpathian Mountains and Central Europe. Likes to settle in the mountains and foothills.
  • Large toad. Large amphibian - up to 7.5 cm. Inhabits the territory from the western part of the People's Republic of China to the Himalayan mountains.

All types of toads, including the red-bellied toad, are adapted to life in aquariums, terrariums and zoos.

Character and lifestyle

As representatives of amphibians, unki can live on the ground and in water. These frogs are most active during the day and at dusk. In dry warm weather, they can stay awake all day and even during the night.

These frogs love to spend time lying on the water, periodically swimming on its surface. Getting food for themselves, they can go to another body of water, but no more than 700 m.

Unki's skin has special glands: they produce phrinolicin, a poisonous substance. This slime scares away the enemies of the frog. Phrinolicin is harmless to humans, but when it gets on the skin, it can cause pain and burning.

For other amphibians and reptiles, this mucus is toxic. Experts do not recommend keeping newts, snakes and other frogs together with unkas within the same terrarium.

The phrinolicin they release will act on other animals and kill them. Other animals who want to eat with these amphibians are not lucky either: bats, dogs, cats, etc.

The life expectancy of a toad in nature is about 12 years. In captivity - 15-20 years.

What do they eat

In the wild, unki eat small invertebrates: worms, beetles, dragonflies. The frog menu largely depends on the habitat. Red-bellied amphibians can eat their smaller compatriots. They adore duckweed and other types of river vegetation.

Individuals that live in the aquarium can be fed:

  1. mealworms
  2. pipe worker,
  3. daphnia,
  4. crickets
  5. bloodworm.

The red-bellied amphibian eagerly eats industrial feed from pet stores. The domestic frog needs to be fed with mineral and vitamin supplements.

Where dwell

Most often, the red-bellied unka is found in Central Austria and Germany, the eastern part of Europe, in the Ural Mountains. The habitat of these vertebrates stretches from the north-west of Sweden and Denmark, and the southern border of their habitat runs along the Stavropol, Krasnodar Territory and western Turkey.

Toad lives in small bodies of water with a very slow current or stagnant water. The water should be well warmed up by the sun's rays.Unque also likes marshlands, ditches and shallow rivers. In pools with running water, these creatures are less common.

Most of their lives, Unki live in water and only sometimes get out on land. Due to the large volume of the lungs, they can hold their breath for a long time and remain under water.


The life cycle of a red-bellied frog is long, and therefore sexual maturity comes to them late - at 3-4 years old. An adult amphibian is ready for breeding throughout the summer.

The unok marriage period is quite interesting. Males compete among themselves for the attention of the female. To attract her attention, they begin to tap their paws on the bottom of the reservoir, lifting up a lot of it and splashing.

So males show their superiority over rivals and readiness to defend their territory. Females living on the shore of the reservoir are quite fertile - at a time they lay about 300 eggs on algae and plant leaves.

The incubation period is 10 days. After this sleep, tiny tadpoles with a body length of 3-5 mm appear. They move quite long distances due to the wide fin on the tail. As it develops, the tail falls off. Unka is considered a tadpole until three months of age.

Natural enemies

Despite the fact that the red-bellied frog is poisonous, this does not always save it from predators. These amphibians can serve as lunch for such animals:

  • reptiles: snakes (common and water snakes, vipers), marsh turtles,
  • amphibians: newts (eat tadpoles), green frogs,
  • birds: white stork, gray herons, mallard ducks,
  • mammals: mink, ferret.


Unka is active at an air temperature of 30 ° C. With the onset of a cold snap in late October-early November, these amphibians hibernate - suspended animation. During this period, frogs hide on the shore in holes of sand or abandoned holes of rodents.

Those individuals that live near a person's dwelling winter under various structures, for example, in cellars or basements. Hibernation lasts about 50 days before the onset of stable warm weather. The mating season begins in frogs 2 weeks after waking up.

The main causes of extinction

The main reason for the decrease in the number of unoks is human activity. People destroy water bodies, and this alone reduces the population of frogs by 7-13 times.

Also, the number of Red Book amphibians is affected by the drying out and pollution of water in reservoirs, catching frogs by terrariumists, and settling fish in reservoirs.

Current population situation

This species is not endangered, but the number of frogs is steadily declining. Amphibians survive only because of their fertility.

Are protective measures required

The red-bellied toad is included in Appendix II to the Berne Convention for the Protection of Wild Fauna. It is under the protection of natural monuments on the territory of the Russian Federation, Latvia and other countries.

To prevent the complete destruction of these frogs, it is necessary to prohibit their capture. You also need to protect the reservoirs inhabited by them from destruction and pollution.

Interesting facts about the animal

Unka differs from its relatives in interesting features:

  1. The pattern on the abdomen of each of the frogs is unique. It is impossible to find two toads with the same arrangement and size of patterns and specks.
  2. Toads have a special anatomical structure of the tongue - its entire lower part is attached to the oral cavity. Therefore, unlike many other species of frogs, the toad does not know how to grab food with its tongue.
  3. Due to this structure of the tongue, toads do not know how to croak like their relatives. Instead, they make sounds that most closely resemble the "woo" lingering sound. Because of this feature, the voices of these amphibians are also called unk or uk.
  4. These small frogs do not move well on the ground, the length of their foot is almost equal to the length of the lower leg.
  5. Another interesting feature of the Unka is the absence of membranes on its front legs. This "gadget" is only on the hind legs of an amphibian.
  6. The frog's pupils are unusual: their shape is not round or oval, but triangular.
  7. The toad has no tympanic membranes and parotids (parotid venom glands). Therefore, this amphibian hears only low-frequency sounds. To do this, the toad has to press its ear to the ground.

The red-bellied toad is a miniature frog with original eyes and a sonorous voice. The number of these beautiful amphibians is steadily decreasing from year to year.

In order to avoid their complete destruction, a person should reconsider his attitude to nature and create comfortable living conditions for the Unks.