Bird Families

Sandy Shoal Swallow / Riparia congica

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Genus: Riparia Forster = Shore Swallows

Riparia riparia Linnaeus, 1758 = Sand martin

Species: Barn Swallow

Field signs. A swallow with a brown back and a transverse band of the goiter and chest. The tail is not deeply cut. It floats above water or along the banks of water bodies (Syroechkovsky, Rogacheva, 1980).

Spread. Widely distributed in Central Siberia. It occurs everywhere where there are clay or sandy cliffs, from the southern borders of the region (does not go to the mountains) to the north to Dudinka (Rogacheva, 1988).

Numerous species of the flat part of the Minusinsk Basin. It nests mainly in steep slopes, but sometimes in other non-turfed cliffs of anthropogenic origin. It enters the mountains only along the lower reaches of larger rivers (Rogacheva, 1988).

In the southern taiga on the Yenisei (59-60o N), most of the colonies are confined to the outcrops of the left bank near settlements, the average number is 31 individuals per 10 km of the coastline. Near Novonazimov in 1977 there was a colony of more than 100 nests, near the village. Fomka - at 50-60, on Bolshoi Kasovsky Island - 40-50 nests. The largest colony was located in the village. Pogodaevo on the side wall of the silo pit (200-250 nests). On the right-bank tributaries of the Yenisei, there were no coastal areas, on the left-bank tributaries they were found in small numbers in the lower reaches, for example, on 150 km of the lower reaches of the Kas there were three colonies: one at the mouth (25 pairs) and two more: 5 and 11 pairs (Bursky, Vakhrushev, 1983). In Priangarye in the river basin. Chuny in June was numerous in the villages (27 individuals / km2), in other places it was common (2 individuals / km2) (Ravkin, 1984). On the lower Angara near Motygin in 1962, large colonies of up to 400-500 pairs were frequent (Syroechkovsky et al., 1978).

In the middle taiga, it is numerous along the Yenisei and is common in the lower reaches of some of its tributaries (Varlamovka, Sarchikha). The largest colonies (many hundreds and even more than 1000 pairs) are located near the villages of Bor, Podkamennaya Tunguska, Lebed and Bakhta, in addition, there are several dozen small colonies. On the river There are few shorebirds on the coast, and they nest only on its lower 120-kilometer stretch. In the northern taiga, it is common, on average 3-4 birds are found per 1 km of the river bed, the same number in the lower reaches of the river. Pakulikhi. In Turukhansk (65o 45 'N), standing on steep sandy slopes, the coastline in 1977. was numerous (41 individuals / km2). At the village. Angutikha (extreme northern taiga, 66o 10 'N) in 1956-1958 and 1963 there were 4 colonies, the two largest (up to 200 pairs in each) were located on Bolshoye Konoschelye Island (Rogacheva, Vakhrushev, 1983). In the area of ​​the village. Tura in Evenkia (typical northern taiga, 64o 15 'N) in the summer of 1978, individual swallows were constantly seen - apparently, there was a small colony nearby (Vakhrushev, Vakhrusheva, 1987). In the extreme northern taiga in the Norilsk Valley, the nesting shoreline is common, in addition to the usual minks in the river banks, swallows make them in peat mounds along the banks of taiga lakes, the usual size of colonies is 20-30 minks (Krechmar, 1966).

In the Yenisei forest-tundra, it is rare, but noted to the north up to 69o N. In 1956-1963. a small nesting colony was located on the Yenisei Island near Nikolsky (Rogacheva et al., 1983). It was also found in the forest-tundra of the upper reaches of the Turukhan River, here the shoreline is rare, its colonies are small (15-20 minks each), but they are found regularly even in the southern part of the Soviet Lakes (67o N) (Rogacheva et al., 1987).

Phenology. Near Krasnoyarsk, arrival on May 7-9, full clutches - on the twentieth of June, emergence of chicks - late July - early August (Yudin, 1952). In Angutikha (66o 10 'N) arrival on June 14-16, beginning of nest building - June 17, first clutches - July 1-3, end of autumn migration - September 1 (Syroechkovsky, Rogacheva, 1980).

Reproduction. Birds dig a burrow (mainly with claws), usually about 50 cm long, occasionally shorter, but sometimes up to 1.5 m. At the widened end of the burrow there is a nest of dry grass and feathers. Clutch - 4-5 white eggs (Syroechkovsky, Rogacheva, 1980).

Food. It feeds exclusively on flying insects. Drinks water, like a killer whale, gliding over the water itself and scooping it up with its mandible (Syroechkovsky, Rogacheva, 1980).

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