Bird Families

The most poisonous frogs in the world


The red-backed macaw is excellent for keeping at home due to its small size and high intelligence. But, despite their size, these birds are very active and mobile, so a lot of space is needed for their normal life. These funny inquisitive birds love to explore everything around them.

Young, hand-fed macaws fit well in a family setting. They adapt perfectly to everything and are relatively unpretentious to care for. These are friendly and affectionate little birds that allow a large number of people to touch them. However, for this, they first of all need to be socialized and introduced to many new people and situations at an early age.

Red-backed macaw

Red-backed macaws are incredibly active and love to fly. It is important to provide them with a spacious place where they can spread their wings. This is a good way to release energy, which these birds have in abundance. In addition, red-backed macaws are very sociable, so it is recommended to keep them in pairs so that they do not experience loneliness and depression.

  • Habitat
  • Description of Redback Macaw
  • Temperament and behavior
  • Care and nutrition
  • Red-backed macaws as pets



Red-backed macaws are found in central and eastern Brazil, Paraguay and northeastern Argentina. Despite the fact that they are distributed over a wide area, this species is in danger of extinction. They inhabit forested areas located near the water, as well as savannahs. Sometimes they can be seen in corn fields because their natural environment is being destroyed by deforestation.

Description of Redback Macaw

Red-backed macaw

The plumage of red-backed macaws is bright green. The head is bluish in color, with a green-blue color on the back of the head and cheeks. The periocular ring is pale yellow with clear thin stripes of feathers. There is a red spot on the forehead, lower back and abdomen. On the wings there are blue feathers, olive-colored underwings. The tail is reddish brown and blue. The eyes are orange-brown, the beak is black, and the legs are yellow. The feminine is usually paler than the masculine.

Adults reach an average of 43 cm in length from beak to tail.

Temperament and behavior

Red-backed macaw

Hand-fed and raised in caring, loving families, macaws have a strong bond with their owners and can be trained well. They need constant mental stimulation and like to be busy, so these pets are not suitable for owners who have little free time.

Red-backed macaws are affectionate, friendly and quick-witted birds. They love to greet their owners with a joyful cry, anticipating games and communication. These parrots often reflect the mood of their owners and, if you are annoyed, they will also be annoyed, and if you are happy, your pet will be happy too.

In the wild, red-backed macaws live in pairs or small flocks. They get along very well with other birds. These parrots are social and love to be in the company of other members of their flock or their partners. Red-backed macaws will be happier if kept in pairs rather than individually. A constant companion will help the bird not get bored and prevent depressive conditions that can occur if these birds are left alone for long periods of time. Together they will be able to play, chase each other from pole to pole, and also try to outwit each other in every possible way.

Care and nutrition

Parrots need a varied diet

A spacious cage is required to keep red-backed macaws. The parrot must be released from the cage daily for extended periods of time. Since these birds are very fond of flying, keeping them in an aviary is the best option for them.

In the wild, macaws feed primarily on fruits, grains, and nuts. In captivity, their diet consists of a variety of grains and seeds, fruits, nuts and feed mixtures. Redbacks will also eat any healthy and nutritious foods that humans eat. It is recommended to make their diet as varied as possible so that your parrot has enough vitamins and minerals.

Red-backed macaws as pets

Red-backed macaw in the aviary

Red-backed macaws are popular as pets for their charm, beauty and playful temperament. Most people who want to have a larger parrot, but do not have the conditions for keeping it, choose these particular small representatives of the macaw family. But it is worth considering that, despite their small size, the red-backs have most of the characteristics of their larger relatives.

These birds are very sociable and love to spend time with their "human flock". Potential owners of these parrots should have plenty of time to play and interact with their pets, as a bored macaw can become angry and mischievous. Red-backed macaws, like their counterparts, love to exercise their beak, so they will need a lot of toys to chew on. Otherwise, they can damage your furniture and other property.

While red-backed macaws are not considered to be very noisy birds, they can scream loudly when desired. These pets are not recommended for people who do not tolerate noise or who live in close proximity to neighbors.

Before deciding on such an important step as purchasing a parrot, you should think it over and weigh everything well. Do not forget about the monetary costs of maintaining such pets. This includes bills for visits to the birdwatcher veterinarian, expensive food, toys, a cage, and more. If you cannot provide your pet with everything you need, do not rush to purchase it.

If, after weighing the pros and cons, you still decide to buy such a parrot, find out about the presence of red-backed macaws from breeders in your area.

Phyllomedusa bicolor

In the Amazon basin, where the rainforests are spread out, there is a cute, but very dangerous phyllomedusa, representing the tree frog family.

The venom of this animal is not toxic enough to kill a person, but it can cause gastrointestinal problems, hallucinations, and allergic reactions. Locals use the poison of this frog to get rid of various ailments, and also as a means to help enter into a trance.

Phyllomedusa is often called the monkey frog, because its habits are very unique and curious. This species is listed in the international Red Book as an endangered species.

Striped leaf climber (Phyllobates vittatus)

The natural habitat of these frogs is associated with the southwestern territories of Costa Rica. The amphibian has a rather bright appearance, which indicates the danger of the animal, so it is better to bypass the frog.

The frog differs from its other relatives by the presence of a bright yellow stripe that runs along the back, while there are several stripes and they pass both along the head and on the sides of the abdomen. In this regard, the frog received such an interesting name.

Since the amphibian prefers to hide among stones and in their crevices, it is not so easy to detect it immediately. If the poison of this frog gets on the skin of a person, then it causes quite severe pain, and often leads to paralysis.

Blue poison dart frog (Dendrobates azureus)

As you can see in the photo, the frog is characterized by a unique blue coloration. This cute creature lives in savannas and tropical rainforests. The diet consists of a variety of small insects.

The poison of this frog is quite toxic and is capable of killing not only large natural enemies, but also humans. The frog is about 5 cm long. It prefers to live among foliage, forming groups of up to 50 individuals.

Despite the fact that the frog is a great danger, many "thrill-seekers" keep these frogs at home as a pet.

Charming leaf climber (Phyllobates lugubris)

The habitat extends to the Atlantic coast of Central America. We can say that the name of the frog is fully consistent with its appearance. The main color of the amphibian is black, with many multi-colored stripes running along the body.

The poison in this frog is not as toxic as in other representatives of leaf climbers, but it provides reliable protection against natural enemies. This frog prefers to be in sight, so it can be easily found in the forest, as well as on the banks of various bodies of water. The leaf crawler can be easily identified by its large, convex eyes, while the head is relatively small.

Red-backed poisonous frog (Ranitomeya reticulatus)

In this beautiful frog, the poison is moderately toxic. The beauty lives in Peru. Has a characteristic bright red back area. The rest of the body is characterized by the presence of numerous dark spots of various sizes.

Although the poison is considered not fatal to humans, it can still cause serious health problems. As for the natural enemies of the frog, for them it is deadly.

As a result of eating ants, the frog has learned to obtain a poisonous secret. She uses it in the face of impending danger. As a rule, the poison of a frog is in special glands located on its body.

Chirikita toad

It is considered one of the most poisonous toads on the planet. This cute creature lives in the natural conditions of Panama and Costa Rica. Differs in a rather bright color, and small size, within 5 cm.As a rule, males are much smaller than females and grow in length up to 3 cm.In case of poison on human skin, nerve endings are blocked, which leads to a loss of coordination of movements and the appearance of seizures, which leads to a very sad outcome - complete paralysis.

Despite the fact that there is still no antidote for this poison, timely detoxification of the body can protect a person from irreparable consequences.

Poisonous tree frog (Trachycephalus venulosus)

Differs in quite impressive size, like for a toad. Adults grow to a length of almost 10 cm. The poisonous tree frog lives in Brazil, therefore it is also called the Brazilian tree frog.

The frog is characterized by a very unusual color. On the body of an amphibian, there are many spots of various diameters, which form a concentric pattern on the body. On the back and neck of the amphibian, you can see small red spots.

The frog spends most of its life on vegetation, while during breeding periods it tries to get as close to the reservoir as possible. Females lay eggs in water bodies. Despite the fact that they can dry out, the offspring manage to survive.

Little poison dart frog (Oophaga pumilio)

The main color of the tiny creature is red. This frog is found in the highlands of the tropics, spreading to the territory of Central and South America.

This frog can be seen from a great distance thanks to its bright coloring, which first of all warns the outside world about its presence. Having noticed this creature, it is better to bypass it. When a poison comes into contact with human skin, it causes severe chemical burns, as well as health problems.

The frog gets poison by eating poisonous ants. It concentrates in special glands. The common one is the only enemy of the frog, since its poison does not work on the snake.

Appearance and dimensions

It is a snake of medium length and size. It can grow up to 77 cm, but more often it reaches only half a meter in length. The tail is much smaller than the body (3.5–6 times). Has smooth scales. The head is somewhat elongated, and it can be visually delimited from the body.

In its upper part, a pattern inherent in this species of snake is visible, consisting of two pairs of converging black stripes, the connection of which ends in an acute angle on the forehead. The same stripes from the other end of the head pass to the body.

The upper part of the body can be brownish-brownish or olive-brownish tones with four rows of dark spots that stretch along the back and close to the tail are interconnected in solid stripes. The lower abdominal part of the yellowish color has black rectangular spots, which are somewhat elongated along.

These noticeable dark rectangles alternate with lighter spots in a checkerboard pattern and are the "calling card" of this runner.

Habitat, habitat

This species lives on the territory of Russia (the Far Eastern part from Khabarovsk to South Primorye), in the northern parts of China and Korea.

Lifestyle and nutrition

This snake is found near various bodies of water, it feels great in the water, knows how to swim and dive perfectly. Due to the semi-aquatic lifestyle, it also has a corresponding prey - fish, frogs and other amphibians. It can also feed on small rodents. He preliminarily strangles the latter, taking them in a ring, and swallows water prey whole at once. The first time after birth, these snakes feed on worms, various insects and small vertebrates.

Prefers to hibernate in the cracks between stones. It has many natural enemies and is often eaten by badgers and raccoon dogs.


Approximately at the beginning of May, the red-back snakes mate, and in the second half of September, the female gives birth. A feature of this species is viviparity - cubs are born in a transparent shell already fully formed, quickly tear it apart and can immediately crawl.

At a time, an ovoviviparous female can give birth to 8–20 babies ranging in size from 18 to 20 cm.

Is a bite dangerous for humans

The red-backed snake is not a venomous snake. When defending, he flattens the body and makes throws, but for a person they are not dangerous. In captivity, he behaves peacefully and gets used to being in his hands well.

How to care at home

This snake can be kept and propagated in your home terrarium. Small size, peaceful nature and absence of danger to humans make this snake attractive for keeping.


One of the important conditions when keeping snakes is the presence of housing that is securely closed, preventing the inhabitant from going outside and visiting neighbors. For red-back runners, horizontal terrariums with ample space are excellent.

The volume of the dwelling is chosen depending on the size of the pet. The most reliable and convenient terrariums are with sliding glass.

To equip a dwelling, it is necessary to purchase the appropriate equipment and fixtures:

  • thermostats (thermal mat, thermal cord or heating lamp),
  • thermometer,
  • hydrometer,
  • UV lamp,
  • feeder,
  • drinker,
  • cleaning tongs and shovel, feeding tongs.

You also need soil and cover for the runner. For this purpose, use driftwood, twigs, inverted flower pots, or the appropriate decor from a pet store.

These snakes are very fond of water, so for a comfortable stay in their habitat, you need to install a large bathing suit or pond. Humidity is maintained using spraying or a generator with appropriate modes (fog, artificial rain). The recommended temperature regime is 24–28 ° С.

Coconut or wood chips are suitable as a soil. To increase the moisture in the soil, you can add earth or moss (sphagnum).

The runners are completely undemanding in terms of lighting.An ordinary incandescent lamp, a fluorescent lamp, is quite suitable. The lights are turned off at night. If you want to periodically observe your pet at night, you can install special lamps that give illumination similar to moonlight.

Lighting with UV lamps is mainly used for:

  • health problems
  • hard passing molt,
  • poor pet appetite.


The diet of red-back snakes consists of frogs and fish familiar to them, small rodents are also suitable. For feeding, the fish are launched into an extensive drinking bowl. The regularity of feeding is selected individually, but generally it ranges from twice every 7 days to once every 10 days. A hungry snake begins to actively move around its dwelling in search of food. In the first days after birth, the snakes feed on worms and insects.

The thickness of the "victim" for food is selected depending on the thickness of the runner and should not exceed it by more than 2-3 times. The snake can also swallow large enough food, but this will negatively affect its digestive system.

House cleaning

When caring for the red-back snake, it is necessary to keep it clean and regularly clean the house. As the pollution progresses, it is necessary to remove the waste products of the snake - excrement, food debris, and so on. Such waste products are removed with tweezers and a spatula.

During activities for cleaning the premises, all electrical appliances are turned off. You also need to take care of the equipment according to the instructions, monitor its serviceability.

The liquid in the drinker and the bath is changed every day. The soil is changed at least once every six months. When cleaning the glass of the terrarium, it is forbidden to use chemicals, it is better to use soda, usually they are simply washed with water with a sponge. General cleaning with disinfection is extremely rare - basically, this procedure is required for a snake's illness on the recommendations of a veterinarian.

So, the red-backed snake is a medium-sized non-venomous snake with an interesting checkerboard pattern on the abdomen. It can be kept at home in a vertical terrarium - you just need to make a bathing suit for this snake, since it leads a semi-aquatic lifestyle in the wild, and feed it with a fish.