Eurasian siskin, European siskin, Common siskin (en.)
Squad - passerine.
Family - finches.
Subfamily - goldfinches.
Genus - goldfinches.
View - siskin.
The number of siskins is large and the habitat is wide. But conditionally it can be divided into two main territories: European, which covers the adjacent areas of Western Asia, which includes Asia Minor and Western Asia and Western Siberia, and the Far East, stretching from Transbaikalia to China and Japan, more precisely, the northern parts of these eastern countries. Around Russia, siskins are especially common in Ukraine, Crimea, the Caucasus and Kazakhstan. True, in the Crimea, birds gather mainly in the winter season, and in the Caucasian highlands they move from the wooded mountains to the valleys. Siskin is a migratory bird, but even at normal times it rarely stays in one place. In winter, siskins migrate far south - to North Africa, Iraq and southern China.
Length: bodies 10 - 12 cm.
The weight: up to 14 grams.
Color siskins are quite bright - yellow-green or with an olive tint, as well as interspersed with dark spots in the upper body and yellow in the lower.
Wings the siskin is mostly striped - yellow-black, the body is dense.
Side siskins are variegated.
Beak they are sharp, conical in shape and rather thin and short.
Male and female siskins differ in color. Males "wear" a black cap on their heads, have a black collar, sometimes a black tail and wings, as well as yellow spots on the cheeks and chest.
Adult male siskins are distinguished by a brighter outfit with lemon shades, while females are gray. Siskins do not have black spots on the head and chest, feathers on the back have a greenish tint, and abdomen variegated with yellowness and black spots. In general, females are paler, and young siskins are similar in color to them.
Siskin is an ideal bird for indoor keeping. She has a good-natured, easygoing character, quickly gets used to the cage and food. Her simple, but listenable song pleases the owner almost all year round. Siskin amazes with its gullibility and easygoingness. This is the most "tame" of all songbirds. He almost immediately ceases to be shy, calmly flies out of the cage into the room and returns back.
In order for a siskin to live at home for a long time, he needs to be provided with a varied set of feed. You can make a grain mixture from canary seed, millet, lettuce seeds, and rape seeds. It is advisable to put crushed sunflower seeds in a separate feeder and remove it if the bird prefers to eat only sunflower. In captivity, siskins love plant seeds that they feed on in nature. For them, in summer and autumn, you can prepare seeds of birch, alder, pine, spruce, quinoa, mari, dandelion. Crushed pine nuts can be a great treat for siskins. The more varied the set of seeds, the better and the more likely your pet will breed and delight with song all year round. Don't forget about greenery. In summer, you need to give woodlice, dandelions, lettuce, and in winter, white cabbage leaves, sprouts of cereals, willow, birch, spruce branches.
Siskin is an ideal bird for indoor keeping. No disadvantages were noted.
Songbird diseases: 1. Constipation. Constipation is usually caused by overfeeding oily birds (hemp, flaxseed, chopped eggs, sunflower) or poor quality food. 2. Diarrhea. Diarrhea - frequent, watery-mucous stools of yellow-white or white-green color. It is usually caused by too abundant feeding of herbs, poor quality feed, cold drinking water. 3. Parasitic insects. There are diseases caused by ticks and parasitic insects. Sometimes downy eaters are found on the body of birds. They feed on down, feathers and keratinized skin scales. Birds behave restlessly, often touch feathers with their beaks, especially in the tail area and under the wings. In some cases, feather parasites can be seen with the naked eye. During mass reproduction, the feather structure is noticeably damaged 4. Obesity. Obesity - fatty deposits on the abdomen, chest and even the back, shortness of breath, lethargy of movements. The cause of obesity is excessive feeding, especially fatty and mealy foods, the body's predisposition to obesity, and irregular bathing. 5. Growths on the legs. All diseases of the feet come from improper maintenance, unsanitary conditions and improper installation of perches, caused by adhered dirt and excrement that corrodes the skin, dampness, and the presence of mites. They are lamellar formations, sometimes with purulent discharge, mainly in the front on the metatarsus and on the hind toe. The metatarsus does not look round from the front, but sharp, like a knife blade. The growths make the bird's movements painful and lead to severe rheumatic diseases and swelling of the legs. 6. Liver disease. Signs - dark spots on the abdomen and near the chest, weakness, lethargy, lack of appetite. Caused by poor quality food, excess fatty foods, constipation. 7. Disease of the tail (coccygeal) gland. A tumor of the gland can arise from damage, tick bites, dirt. If measures are not taken in time, the bird will die. 8. Regrowth of beak and claws. Overgrown claws impede the movement of the bird, especially on a flat surface, do not allow to hold food (species feature), and in the case of clinging to the grate can cause serious injury. 9. Disease of the eyes. Eye disease is associated with unkempt poultry, lack of dietary feed rich in vitamin A. 10. Avitaminosis. The reason is poor quality food, lack of greenery, parasites in the cage. 11. Enteritis and inflammation of the cloaca. These diseases occur due to improper feeding and hypothermia of birds. 12. Disease of the respiratory system. The causes of respiratory diseases can be a draft, sudden changes in air temperature, cold water. 13. Diseases of metabolism. With improper and monotonous feeding, the birds develop metabolic diseases. 14. Infectious diseases. Infectious diseases include psittacosis, tuberculosis, smallpox, diphtheria, mycosis, etc. Fortunately, infectious diseases among small birds are rare. 15. Fractures. 16. Hoarseness. 17. Gastroenteritis. This is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the glandular stomach and intestines. 18. Dermatitis. This is an inflammation of the skin. 19. Diarrhea. Profuse diarrhea with red liquid droppings. The disease is very dangerous - the bird can die within 24 hours. 20. Scab (Dermatomycosis). 21. Syngamoz. This disease can be determined only in its neglected state. Its signs are: a) shortness of breath, wheezing, b) cough with expectoration of worms. On examination of the larynx, worms can be found in the lumen of the trachea.
To breed a siskin in captivity, you need to put a couple of birds in a large cage or in an aviary. It was possible to propagate siskins in cages measuring 70 x 50 cm at the base and 50 cm in height. The larger the cage, the better. In the cage, it is necessary to make the back wall and one of the side walls deaf. The ceiling also needs to be half-covered with a rag or piece of cardboard. Inside, the cage is decorated with branches of fir trees and deciduous trees. 1-2 canary nests are placed in the back, "calm" corner, or special "platforms" are built from spruce branches in the form of huts. You need to make sure that the birds have a choice of all kinds of places to build a nest. At the bottom of the cage, a large amount of "building material" is scattered to build the nest. For these purposes, you can use dry grass, moss, wool, feathers, finely cut cotton wool. During the nesting period, the birds should not be disturbed, the cage should be cleaned less often, the feeder and drinker should be placed on the opposite side of the intended location of the nest. If the birds are tame. the probability of breeding success is increased.
How to recognize a siskin by external signs
These birds grow very small in size, their body length rarely exceeds 12 centimeters. The mass of an adult siskin is only 15 grams.
The plumage of these small birds is very interesting, of course, it is not as bright as, for example, in crossbills, but it also has its own attractive differences. Males wear olive-yellow "clothes": there are black inserts on the head, wings and tail. A distinctive feature of males is the black "cap" on the head. But the females of this species are slightly different. Their feathers are very variegated, especially on the abdomen. The feathers are painted in olive yellow tones.
The female siskin.
The lifestyle of siskins and their diet
To make the siskins feel comfortable, they choose coniferous and mixed forests for living. Sometimes they settle in mountainous areas. When summer is over, siskins move into reed copses and deciduous forests. And it's understandable why - after all, here they can find something to peck at, for example, birch earrings.
Siskins are migratory birds. To migrate south and back, they huddle in numerous flocks. Well, the rest of the time these birds can be found in pairs. It is worth noting that the siskins living in the southern regions do not fly away for wintering, they are quite comfortable in these places too, so why waste extra energy on the flight?
The male siskin.
When spring comes, migratory flocks of siskins return to their nesting sites. These birds build their dwellings for future chicks at the very tops of trees. Both members of the family take part in the construction of the nest: both the male and the female.
To build a dwelling, siskins use moss and lichens. The interior is lined with grass and foliage for softness. By the way, the choice of just such a building material is not accidental: the nest of a siskin is almost impossible to immediately notice in the crown of a tree. This is how carefully the siskins take care of their future offspring.
Sometimes dexterous siskins get seeds like that - their favorite delicacy.
Speaking about the nutrition of these birds, it can be noted with confidence that siskins are herbivores. Their main food is the seeds of all kinds of trees: alder, birch, pine, spruce and others. In addition, siskins feast on dandelion seeds. Sometimes insects get into the food of the siskin, but this is rather an exception to the rule. But these birds feed their chicks mainly with protein food of animal origin: caterpillars and larvae.
Chizhi found a feeding trough and immediately began to eat.
The mating season for siskins begins in the spring. At this time, ringing trills of males are heard, calling on females to nest. Having laid eggs, and there are no more than six of them in the clutch, the female siskin begins to incubate.
Listen to the voice of the siskin
At this time, the future father of the family is obliged to feed the hen so that it does not become exhausted. When chicks are born, they are under strict parental supervision for about 14 days. It is worth noting that siskins manage to breed two generations of young individuals in a year.
In nature, these birds live for about 1.5 - 2 years. Life expectancy in captivity is much longer, sometimes up to 8-10 years.
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