Bird Families

White-billed woodpecker


  • White-winged woodpecker (Latin Dendrocopos leucopterus) is a bird of the woodpecker family. Distributed in Central Asia, Dzungaria and Kashgaria. Inhabits riparian tugai thickets, turang groves, saxaul forests among deserts. Near settlements, it settles in mixed plantations with walnut and fruit trees. It resembles the more famous and widespread great spotted woodpecker and, according to a number of experts, may represent a group of its subspecies.

Leads a separate lifestyle Strictly territorial, the distance between adjacent nests is at least 300-500 m.

Related concepts

Black-headed, or marsh gadget (Latin Poecile palustris, also called Parus palustris) is a species of birds from the titmouse family (Paridae). In earlier Russian-language sources, it is referred to as just a gaichka.


The sizes and proportions are comparable to those of the great spotted woodpecker. Length 22-24 cm, weight about 70 g. The beak is of medium length, straight, at the end has the shape of a chisel. plumage, the main distinguishing features are very large white spots on the shoulder blades and wings, the belly and undertail are bright red without brownish or ocher shades. There is also a greater development of the white on the forehead than that of the great spotted woodpecker. in other details of the plumage, these two species are no different.

According to the degree of development of white on flight feathers and tail feathers, two subspecies are distinguished: D. l. albipennis and D. l. jaxartensis. In the first, the folded wing looks predominantly white with small black spots, white dominates the outer pair of tail feathers. On the wing of the second race, black, although slightly, still prevails over white, the black stripes on the outer tail feathers are wider.

Usually a laconic bird, but noisy during the mating season. The main cry is a sharp and abrupt "kick", like a great spotted woodpecker.


Mosaic widespread and generally not numerous, but common in places. Distribution area - Central Asia, adjacent areas of northeastern Afghanistan and western China. In the west, the border of the range from the east bends around the Aral Sea and passes through the western Uzboy, in the east it runs through the Bogdoshan ridge (eastern Tien Shan), Lake Lobnor and western Kunlun. The northern periphery of the range is located mostly in southern Kazakhstan: to the north to the mouth of the Syr Darya, the lower reaches of the Chu and the southern coast of Balkhash. To the east, the border goes to China, where in the north it reaches the Borokhoro and Bogdoshan ridges. South to the foot of the Kopetdag (possibly to the northern outskirts of Khorasan), the northern foot of Paropamiz, the northern foot of the Hindu Kush, the northern foot of the western Kunlun, the northern foot of the Altintag ridge.


It is found only where there is woody vegetation. Inhabits plain tugai along river banks, kishlak orchards with walnut and fruit trees, groves dominated by Euphrates turanga, willow forests in the Western Pamirs. in the desert area it is found in thickets of Zaisan saxaul and black saxaul (Haloxylon aphyllum). Common in the Amu Darya delta and the Syr Darya valley, often settles in city gardens. In the lower reaches of the Ili, it nests in tugai with an admixture of Jeddah, willow and Euphrates turanga. in the mountains inhabits deciduous forests dominated by walnuts and fruit trees, sometimes with an admixture of spruce and juniper. It is more common in the plains and in the valleys; on the northern slopes of Kunlun, it occurs at an altitude of up to 2500 m above sea level.


Apparently, like other spotted woodpeckers, begins to reproduce by the end of the first year of life. Marital excitement, accompanied by drumming, lasts from mid-February to June. For knocking, they choose not only traditional dry trees, but also artificial structures such as poles of radio antennas. Breeds in separate pairs at a distance of 300-500 meters from each other. On small islands of the forest, as a rule, only one pair lives, on larger islands two pairs may adjoin at opposite ends. The nest is arranged in a hollow of deciduous trees with soft wood - Euphrates turanga, willow, apricot tree, apple, mulberry, elm, walnut, saxaul. In the 19th century, there was a case of making a nest on the slope of a sandy hill. The height of the hollow can be up to 10 m above ground level, but usually does not exceed 2-2.5 meters. In general, the white-winged woodpecker nests lower than some other woodpeckers. The depth of the hollow is 34-49 cm, the diameter of the hollow is 9.5-17 cm. The hole, like the horizontal section of the hollow, has a slightly oval shape, its diameter is (4.5-5) x (5-5.5) cm. fresh hollow, but there are known cases of occupation of last year or natural hollows. in the latter case, the bottom of the niche and the entrance are expanded to the required size. Both members of the pair build, but the degree of their participation requires additional study. Eggs are laid from late March to late May. clutch 4-6, rarely 7 eggs. Eggs are white with a smooth shiny shell, their size: (22-27) x (17-22) mm. In case of loss of clutch, the female lays again. Incubation from the last egg for 12-13 (according to other sources, 13-14) days, male and female incubate. Chicks are born naked and helpless. Both parents feed them equally. The ability to fly appears at the age of 20-21 days. The mass emergence of chicks is strongly stretched in time: in Kazakhstan at the end of June in the lower belt of mountains and from the 20th of July in the belt of deciduous forest, in Kyrgyzstan - at the end of July, in Tajikistan - in the third decade of June, in Turkmenistan - in mid-May ...

White-billed woodpecker

White-billed woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) (Table 53) is found in the southeast of North America, where it inhabits vast areas of swampy forests.

The color of this woodpecker is strict. The main color of its plumage is dense black, from the back of the head on the sides of the neck there are two wide white stripes connecting on the back, so the middle of the back is also white. The wing, with the exception of the humeral feathers and the outer edge of the three outer primary flight feathers, is white. On the back of the head there is a large beautiful tuft of elongated feathers - the male has bright red, the female has black.

By: Original photo by Arthur A. Allen, colored version by Jerry A. Payne - This image is Image Number 2513013 at Forestry Images, a source for forest health, natural resources and silviculture images operated by The Bugwood Network at the University of Georgia and the USDA Forest Service., CC BY 3.0 us,

The eyes are bright yellow and shiny, the legs are lead-gray, the beak is light, ivory. This woodpecker got its name for the color of its beak. The body contours of the white-billed woodpecker are also remarkable: its neck is thin, making the head seem disproportionately large. In terms of size, it is a very large woodpecker: the length of the bird exceeds 0.5 m.

Kingdom: Animals Class: Birds Order: Woodpeckers Family: Woodpeckers Genus: Royal woodpeckers Species: White-billed woodpecker International scientific name Campephilus principalis

White-billed woodpeckers live in pairs, which probably do not disintegrate all their lives. Both birds of a pair are always together, but even at a distance it is not difficult to distinguish them: the female is louder, but more careful than the male. The breeding season starts in March. White-billed woodpeckers are very careful and during the nesting period they keep in the most secluded corners of the forest.

The hollow is always arranged in the trunk of a living tree, usually in an oak, always at a considerable height; often the inlet of the hollow is located under a large branch or branch, which protects against water flowing into the hollow during rain. Both the male and the female take part in hollowing out the hollow. The clutch consists of 5-7 pure white eggs, placed directly on the bottom of the hollow.

In the southern areas of the range, these birds hatch chicks twice a season, in the north they have only one clutch.

In its habits, the white-billed woodpecker is somewhat different from other woodpeckers. His flight is extremely beautiful and, like other woodpeckers, wavy. But, flying from one tree to another, the bird preliminarily climbs to the top of the tree on which it was, and, flying off it, does not flap its wings, but, having opened them, plans downward, it describes a smooth arc, delighting the beauty of its plumage of the most demanding artist ...

This woodpecker does not like to fly long distances and prefers to climb the trunk and branches of trees and jump from one nearby tree to another. Climbing a tree, the white-billed woodpecker incessantly emits a sonorous, clear and pleasant cry of "pet-pet-pet". He repeats this three-syllable cry so often that one has to doubt whether the bird is silent for at least a few minutes during the day. His voice can be heard a kilometer away.

The woodpecker gets its food, carefully examining the trunks and large branches of trees. Starting at the bottom of the tree and climbing by jumping along a spiral line around the trunk, the bird examines cracks and crevices in the bark and hollows them, looking for insects. The strength of this bird is very great: with one blow of its beak, it beats off pieces of bark and chips up to 17-20 cm in length, and finding a withered tree affected by insects, in a few hours knocks the bark from 2-3 m2 of the trunk surface and thus in 2-3 days completely sands the tree.

Most often, white-billed woodpeckers prey on larvae, pupae and adults of beetles living in bark and wood, as well as open-living insects living on the surface of trunks. In late summer and autumn, these birds eat berries and fruits of wild trees.

People often destroy these beautiful birds for the sake of their extremely beautiful head with a bright tuft and ivory beak. Travelers who are greedy for various "memorabilia" tend to purchase the head of the white-billed woodpecker as an exotic souvenir from the places where this bird forms an integral part of the landscape of terrible and at the same time wonderful swamps. Currently, the white-billed woodpecker is a very rare bird: it has already disappeared in most of its range.

Source: Animal Life. Birds, edited by Professors N.A. Gladkov, A.V. Mikheev. Volume 5

Woodpecker is a migratory bird or not

No, he is sedentary. Listen in winter in the park, you will surely hear the sound of this beautiful, noble bird - the doctor of the forest.

Great Spotted (Dendrocopos major)

This type is the most popular. Its knocking can be heard even in the city park. The size is medium, the color is black and white, and the nape of young individuals is bright red.

The Spotted Woodpecker has a thrifty manner. All spring he can collect cones to stock up on seeds for the winter.

White-winged (Dendrocopos leucopterus)

In the color of the bird, white is in the lead, and its size is slightly less than average. There is red plumage on the back of the head.

What does a woodpecker eat? Insects from the surface of trees, in rare cases - it can look for food on the ground.

The female differs from the male in the absence of red plumage on the back of the head. In the female, it is black.

White-backed (Dendrocopos leucotos)

If we talk about color, then the name speaks for itself. This individual has a white back and a pink tail.

It feeds on insects, nuts and acorns, but is unable to hammer cones due to a beak that is less developed than, for example, that of the Spotted Woodpecker.

Nesting begins in spring, and at the end of June, the first emergence of White-backed Woodpecker chicks can be observed.

Great Razorwing (Dendrocopos nanus)

The individual differs from others in white spots on the back in the form of rhombuses and is large in size. On the back of the head it has bright red plumage.

Insects, which the woodpecker feeds on, are found on the bark and under the bark. To reach the caterpillar, it tears off the bark with its beak. Before eating, it strikes the caterpillar several times with its beak to kill it.

Jynx torquilla

A very small bird about the size of a sparrow. The coloring is such that it merges with the tree trunk. It has a very weak beak and soft tail.

The wormhole feeds on ants and their larvae. She cannot gouge the bark due to her weak beak.

For dwelling he chooses ready-made hollows of trees, and sometimes settles right in the stumps. Clutch appears in May-June and consists of 7-12 eggs, which are oblong in shape.

Zhelna (Dryocopus martius)

A large bird the size of a crow, the color of which is dull black. The back of the head of the male is bright red, while that of the female is slightly paler.

It nests high above the ground in hollows of trees, which it hollows out on its own. The entrance to the dwelling is rectangular. Clutch appears in April-May and contains up to 5 eggs.

Green (Picus viridis)

Woodpecker photo bird - beauty

The bird is medium in size with a color of several shades of light green. The head is bright red, whose shape resembles a helmet.

She chooses dwelling in the hollows of deciduous trees. In April-June, incubates from 3 to 6 eggs.

On rare occasions, the Green Woodpecker can be seen in the city park.

Gray-haired (Picus canus)

Small specimen. The back is light green and the head and front are light gray. Males have red plumage on their foreheads.

The way of life and manner of nesting is the same as that of the Green Woodpecker.

Differs in a loud and nasal cry.

Syrian (Dendrocopos syriacus)

The color of this individual is black and white. The tail is bright red. There is a pink stripe on the chest.

The male is engaged in the structure of the dwelling, in rare cases - the female can help him. Both the female and the male are engaged in incubation of eggs - in turn.

Three-toed (Picoides tridactylus)

The bird is medium in size, color - black and white. In the male, the top of the head is light yellow, while in the female it is off-white. A distinctive feature of this individual is three toes on each paw.

The woodpecker feeds on insects, mainly bark beetles. Can peel off the bark of a tree in search of accumulations of larvae.

A rather secretive and silent bird. Its nest is located in the hollows of predominantly coniferous trees. Clutches appear in May-June in size of 3-6 eggs.

Scaly (Picus squamatus)

Light green bird with black and white patterns along the edges of the feathers. The beak is yellow. This species is considered endangered and is listed in the Red Book. The reason for the disappearance is deforestation for agricultural needs.

Lifestyle and nesting habits are poorly understood. What the woodpecker eats is also little known. There is speculation that the Scaled Woodpecker's lifestyle is similar to that of the Green.

Where woodpeckers winter

It is impossible to say that woodpeckers are migratory birds. These birds prefer to live where they were born and raised. They stock up on food for the winter and insulate their homes with natural materials. Only some of the species can leave their native forest in severe frosts in order to temporarily move closer to people.