For most bird species, flight has become the main mode of movement in space. During the flight, birds look for food, escape from predators, find new habitats. This is the most specific form of movement of birds, which determined the main features of the organization of this class - Aves.
The ability of birds to fly determined a number of adaptations that ensure the flight itself, takeoff and landing, as well as orientation in space. The wings of different bird species differ greatly in both shape and size. The shape of the wings depends entirely on the method of flight, affecting the amount of lift they create when moving through the air.
Birds living in forests and maneuvering among dense vegetation have short and slightly rounded wings, while birds traveling long distances have thin and long wings. The wingspan of birds is the distance between the tops of the spread wings.
The wandering albatross (Latin Diomedea exulans) is a large (117 cm long) seabird with strong muscular wings, the span of which can reach 363 cm. This bird has the largest wingspan among birds in general and among albatross (Latin Diomedeidae) in particular. Life expectancy is from 10 to 30 years, and from and up to 50 years. The wingspan of an albatross is 3 times its body.
Bigfoot maleo (Macrocephalon maleo) - the only representative of the genus Macrocephalon, endemic to the Indonesian island of Sulawesi. This bird reaches a length of 55 cm. Its plumage is predominantly black, the bare skin of the face is yellow, the irises are reddish-brown, the beak is reddish-orange, the belly is pink. A helmet-shaped crest adorns the top of the head. The blue-gray toes, separated by membrane-like skin, have 4 long, sharp claws. Outwardly, both sexes are similar, but the females are slightly smaller and their plumage color is paler. Maleo inhabits tropical lowland and mountain forests. This bird feeds on fruits, seeds, ants, termites, beetles and other small invertebrates.
The Tristan albatross (Latin Diomedea dabbenena) is a seabird that lives in the Tristan da Cunha archipelago. Thanks to its large wingspan (350 cm), it is perfectly suited for gliding above the ocean surface. Due to the similar plumage, it was previously believed that they belong to the subspecies of the wandering albatross. This is a very rare bird that is under the threat of complete extinction.
The Amsterdam albatross (Latin Diomedea amsterdamensis) is another large representative of the albatross family. This handsome man is only 10 cm behind the Tristan albatross. Its wingspan is 340 cm. It nests exclusively in the Amsterdam Islands, hence its name. The number (about 100 individuals) of the Amsterdam albatross is in critical condition, therefore it belongs to the endangered species.
The Andean condor (Latin Vultur gryphus) is the largest bird of prey in the Western Hemisphere and one of the highest flying birds on the planet. The body length of the Andean condor is about 115-135 cm, and the wingspan is about 275 to 320 cm. In addition, the Andean condor is one of the long-lived birds, whose age can reach 50 years or more.
The African marabou (Latin Leptoptilos crumeniferus) is an inhabitant of the African savannas and other open spaces of this continent. Marabou belongs to the stork family, therefore it is endowed with a huge beak, typical for all members of this family. It is the largest representative of the stork order (115-152 cm in length). The wingspan is 287-320 cm. This scavenger hovers over the savannah, spreading its huge wings, looking for food.
Family Bigfoot / Megapodiida
Big-legged or weed chickens are peculiar birds, sharply differing not only from other chickens, but also from all other birds in the nature of reproduction. They do not build nests (in the conventional sense), do not incubate clutches and do not feed chicks. Nevertheless, caring for their offspring manifests itself very clearly, but in a very peculiar form. Weed chickens are widespread in the southern hemisphere from the Nicobar and Philippine Islands to the south to Australia, to the southeast to the islands of Central Polynesia. They inhabit mainly tropical rainforests, but they also live on coral islands with poor vegetation, and in dry scrub (scrub) of semi-desert parts of Australia. They lead a terrestrial life, take off only being frightened, and, taking off, hastily sit down on the nearest trees. Weed chickens are large birds, resembling a turkey in general appearance, some species and sizes are not inferior to a turkey. The body is dense. The legs are very large, strong, the toes are long, with strong straight claws. The wings are wide and blunt. The color of the plumage, with rare exceptions, is dim. This family has 7 genera with 10 species. Representatives of this family lay their eggs in the ground, in heaps of decaying organic matter, which they rake themselves, in the craters of volcanoes, and occasionally in crevices of rocks. Weed chickens' eggs are very large, with a high yolk content. They are placed in a heap always in an upright position. Development of eggs occurs without incubation, but in a number of species, males zealously watch the nesting heap. Chicks hatch inside the heap, sometimes at a depth of 50–90 cm underground. Having got to the surface, the chicks immediately run into the forest and by the evening of the same day begin to fly.
Checking the degree of warming up of the heap is done by a male handicraft turkey, applying a beak to its surface. Which organ is used to determine the temperature in an artisanal turkey has not yet been clarified. It is possible that it is a language. Until favorable conditions come, the male handicraft turkey does not allow the female to come to this "incubator".
In April, when it is very dry, a male ocellated hen pulls out a hole in the ground more than 0.5 m deep and about 2.5 m in diameter. Throughout June and July, he collects leaves from an area with a radius of about 30 m, and at the end of July, a hillock 30 centimeters high appears on the site of the pit. At this time, small rains fall, the leaves and twigs get wet, the bird covers them with a layer of sand about 30 cm thick, and rotting begins in the heap. Its temperature rises rapidly. But only at the end of August, the male ocellated hen admits the female to this "incubator" so that she will lay the first egg. The egg is placed in the front chamber, that is, in a specially dug recess in the center of the heap, always in an upright position. Like all weed chickens, ocellated chickens lay their eggs at long intervals, in this case after 4 days. If the weather is bad and especially if it is damp, the male does not show any desire to dig up the nesting heap for the female who has approached. This can damage the eggs already there. The male ocellated hen does not even let the female come close. The female simply drops the egg nearby and comes back here again after 4 days. So gradually up to 20-30 eggs of varying degrees of incubation accumulate in the chamber of the "incubator". The incubation period of each egg lasts 60 days, and the chicks are selected from the heap one at a time at intervals of 4 days, and sometimes after 8 days. The female does not even see the chicks, and the male who is at the "nest" simply does not notice them: his concern is the "incubator", and not what has emerged from him. The last chick hatches in mid-April, rarely earlier. Soon after, the male ocellated hen should start preparing for the new nesting season. While the eggs lie in the nesting heap, the male is always with her. He feeds in the immediate vicinity of the heap, sleeps on the bush, on the branches hanging over it. Already before dawn, the male is at work. It first removes the entire top of the heap, which takes several hours. The temperature in the nesting chamber begins to drop, after which the ventilated and cooled sand is pushed back into place by the male. In the middle of summer, when the sun warms up strongly and there is a danger of overheating, the male builds on the heap, shoveling up a layer of sand 30-40 cm thick. Before dawn he removes this sand, and later again rakes it on the heap. Ocellated chickens behave differently in the fall. At this time, the sun's rays are no longer dangerous, moreover, the eggs need to be warmed up in the sun. To do this, around noon, the male rips off the top soil layer, leaving a layer of sand about 4 cm thick over the eggs so that the sun can freely heat the eggs. In the meantime, the buried sand is also heated in the sun, and the bird gradually returns it to the heap, raking up layers of 2-3 cm per hour and more and more covering the eggs. The male checks the condition of the heap by applying his beak to its surface.
In April, when it is very dry, the male pulls out a hole in the ground with a depth of more than 0.5 m and a diameter of about 2.5 m.All June and July he collects leaves from an area with a radius of about 30 m, and at the end of July a bump appears in the place of the hole. about 30 cm. At this time, small rains fall, the leaves and twigs get wet, the bird covers them with a layer of sand about 30 cm thick, and rotting begins in the heap. Its temperature rises rapidly. But only at the end of August, the male admits the female to this "incubator" so that she will lay the first egg. The egg is placed in the egg chamber, that is, in a specially dug recess in the center of the heap, always in an upright position. As with all weed chickens, eggs are laid at long intervals, in this case after 4 days. If the weather is bad, and especially if it is damp, the male does not show any desire to dig up the nesting heap for the female who has approached, - this can damage the eggs already there. The male does not even let the female come close. The female simply drops the egg nearby and comes back here again after 4 days. So gradually in the chamber of the "incubator" accumulates up to 20-30 eggs of varying degrees of incubation. The incubation period of each egg lasts 60 days, and the chicks are selected from the heap one at a time at intervals of 4 days, and sometimes after 8 days. The female does not even see the chicks, and the male who is at the nest simply does not notice them: his concern is the "incubator", and not what is derived from him. The last chick hatches in mid-April, rarely earlier. Soon after, the male should start preparing for the new nesting season. While the eggs lie in the nesting heap, the male is always with her. He feeds in the immediate vicinity of the heap, sleeps on the bush, on the branches hanging over it. Already before dawn, the male is at work. It first removes the entire top of the heap, which takes several hours. The temperature in the nesting chamber begins to drop, after which the ventilated and cooled sand is pushed back into place by the male. In the middle of summer, when the sun warms up strongly and there is a danger of overheating, the male builds on the pile, shoveling up a layer of sand 30-40 cm thick. Before dawn, he removes this sand, and later rakes it up on the pile again. Otherwise, the bird behaves in the fall. At this time, the sun's rays are no longer dangerous, moreover, the eggs need to be warmed up in the sun. To do this, at about noon, the male rips off the top soil layer, leaving a layer of sand about 4 cm thick over the eggs so that the sun can freely heat the eggs. In the meantime, the buried sand is also heated in the sun, and the bird gradually returns it to the heap, raking up layers of 2-3 cm per hour and more and more covering the eggs. The male checks the condition of the heap by applying his beak to its surface.
After that, adults maleo forget about their parenting responsibilities. Maleo chicks get out of the ground half-feathered, run from the coast to the forest, and on the same day begin to fly a little. Thus, maleo chicks never know their parents or siblings. Before the onset of sexual maturity, they lead a solitary lifestyle in the forests. Hundreds of maleo eggs are laid in suitable places on the shore. These places are well known, guarded, no one shoots maleo, although their meat is very tasty, but eggs are collected in wide sizes.
Southern royal albatross
The southern royal albatross (lat. Diomedea epomophora) is a large bird (107-122 cm in length, weight - 8 kg). The wingspan of the royal albatross is about 280-320 cm, life expectancy is about 58 years. The long development of the bird and its low fertility is compensated by the low mortality rate of adults and their long life span. According to statistics, every year only 3 out of 100 birds die.
Lifestyle and reproduction
Maleos spend most of the year in the jungle, but in the driest period (August-January) they gather in certain areas of the forest near the coast to lay eggs. Maleos are monogamous, and couples are often formed for life. Periodically, at intervals of several days, the birds go from the forest to areas of a dry beach covered with dark sand, and dig a hole 40-70 cm deep, in which the female lays one, but very large, weighing up to 240 g (which is five times more than a chicken) with a thin shell egg and, having covered it with sand, returns to the forest. Since the places necessary for incubation of eggs are often located several kilometers from the forest, and the female lays 10-30 eggs during the breeding season, the birds have to walk back and forth tens and even hundreds of kilometers during this relatively short period.
Bigfoot Maleo builds nests in open sandy landscapes, volcanic soil or on beaches. There are few places on the island suitable for laying eggs; they are usually used by several dozen or even hundreds of birds at the same time - a kind of bird colonies are formed. The locals are well aware of these limited sandy areas and, during the breeding season, come there to collect eggs, digging up hundreds of them. Local predators, including monitor lizards, dogs and pigs, also "work" here. The female lays each egg in a deep hole in the sand and leaves the sun or volcanic heat to warm the clutch. In the sand well warmed by the sun, the embryo in the egg develops slowly (about 70 days), but the chick hatches feathered, independent. After hatching, the chicks make their way through the sand and hide in the forest. Young birds can fly and are completely independent from their parents. They search for food on their own and protect themselves from predators such as lizards, pythons, wild boars or cats.
Himalayan vulture, or snow vulture, or kumai
The Himalayan vulture, or snow vulture, or kumai (lat.Gyps himalayensis) is a bird of prey living in the highlands (from 2 thousand to 5 thousand m) of the Himalayas, Tibet, Mongolia, Tien Shan, Pamir, Sayan, etc. the wings of this rather large (116-150 cm long) bird are 310 cm. Thanks to its powerful wings, the Himalayan vulture can rise to a height of 8 thousand meters.
The largest wingspan of a bird in the world
Wings - the forelegs of birds, covered with feathers, and allowing them to rise into the air. The wingspan of birds is nothing more than the distance between the tops of fully spread wings.
Albatrosses have the largest wingspan, which is why they occupy the first three places in this ranking.
Wandering albatross (Diomedea exulans) has powerful, muscular wings with a span of about 363 cm. it the largest wingspan among birds in the world, and among albatross in particular. The body length of these birds is 3 times less than the wingspan.
Tristan albatross (Diomedea dabbenena) - second in this category among albatrosses and birds of the world. Its wingspan can reach 350 cm. On such long wings, these birds perfectly glide over the water, looking for food.
Amsterdam albatross (Diomedea amsterdamensis) only 10 cm yielded to the previous species. Its maximum wingspan is 340 cm. This species of albatross is endangered, today there are just over 100 Amsterdam albatrosses in the world.
Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) is one of the largest birds in the Western Hemisphere. The body length of these birds varies from 115 to 135 cm, while the wingspan is approximately 275-320 cm, which is significantly larger than that of its closest relative and competitor, the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus).
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African marabou (Leptoptilos crumeniferus) is endowed with not only a powerful beak, with which it easily breaks the bones of animals, but also one of the longest wings, the span of which is about 320 cm... These birds are scavengers. Spreading their large wings, they hover over the savannah, looking for food.
Curly pelican (Pelecanus crispus) flies and swims well. The bird mainly uses flapping flight, but sometimes it hovers. In flight, the pelican measures its wings, bending its neck and stretching its legs back. Dalmatian pelicans have a wingspan of more than 3 meters (310-320 cm).
Another albatross - southern royal albatross (Diomedea epomophora). He lost 20 cm to the Amsterdam albatross, and to the leader of the rating - 43 cm, as his wingspan is 320 cm... These birds are characterized by muscular wings that can hold the bird during gliding flight.
Kumay, or himalayan vulture, or snow vulture (Gyps himalayensis), inhabits the highlands of the Himalayas and some other nearby areas. The wingspan of this bird, frankly speaking, is rather big - 310 cm... On such powerful and long wings, the vulture rises to a height of 8000 km.
Pink pelicans (Pelecanus onocrotalus) are predators, like all pelicans. They feed mainly on fish, but they can also swallow chicks of other birds. The wingspan of this pelican species can reach 310 cm.
Black or brown vulture (Aegypius monachus) has a relatively large habitat and relatively large numbers. Every day birds of this species cover up to 400 km on their long and strong wings with a span 300-310 cm. Like all hawks, vultures soar using thermal updrafts. It turns out that the largest wingspan for birds practicing gliding. Their wings are quite wide and muscular, allowing them to support a considerable weight of their body (5-12 kg) in flight. P.S. Download a ready-made presentation for the school "The largest wingspan in birds" Author: wolchonokW7 Copyright: Zooclub portalWhen reprinting this article, an active link to the source is MANDATORY.
Black vulture, or brown vulture
Black, or brown vulture (lat.Aegypius monachus) is a bird of prey from the hawk family. It is a relatively abundant species found in Southern Europe, Central Asia and North America. The brown vulture travels distances of up to 400 km in search of food every day. It soars high in the sky using warm updrafts. Its wingspan ranges from 300 to 310 cm.
As you can see, birds practicing gliding at high altitude have the largest wingspan. The luckiest glider pilots are seabirds that fly over the ocean.
Birds are very interesting creatures, they are strikingly different from all other animals, and even from each other. Some birds spend almost their entire life in the air, the second are generally devoid of wings and feathers and can only run on the ground, and still others prefer exclusively the water element.
It `s naturally, ostrich... The growth of the largest individuals of the African ostrich reaches 2.80 meters, with a weight of 170 kilograms.
The smallest bird
This record belongs to hummingbird... The smallest hummingbird weighs only 1.5 grams with a body length of about 5 centimeters.
The fastest flying bird
Among the flying birds peregrine falcon there is simply no equal. At a straight distance, the peregrine falcon is capable of accelerating to 200 km / h, and in the so-called diving fall during the hunt, the feathered predator develops a speed of up to 325 km / h. By the way, the peregrine falcon is not only the fastest bird, but also the fastest animal on the planet.
Fastest running bird
Probably it's not a secret for anyone that ostriches are the best runners among all birds. They are capable of running at a speed of 80 km / h. With such a run, the stride of an ostrich can reach up to 8 meters in length.
Heaviest flying bird
Here, the first place is shared by a large African bustard and dudak... Surprisingly, these birds weigh 18-20 kg.
Large yellow-crested cockatoo lives in captivity for about 80 years. However, it is believed that under natural conditions the life expectancy of this parrot can be 100 years or more.
Second record peregrine falcon... This bird has such good eyesight that it can recognize a mouse from a distance of 8 kilometers.
Second place - cassowary
The cassowary is the second largest bird in the world, found in the forests of New Guinea and in the northeastern part of the Australian continent. The growth of the largest individuals is 2 m, and the weight is 60 kg. Cassowaries have an original appearance - a massive body with thick plumage, wings are small and invisible under long feathers, powerful legs, an elongated neck with hanging outgrowths, a blue and bald head, and a horny helmet on the top of the head.
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The purpose of this helmet is not entirely clear; according to one version, it helps males look more attractive in the eyes of females, and according to the other, it promotes rapid movement in dense thickets. Cassowaries run in the forest really quickly, reaching speeds of up to 50 km / h. Strong legs with three fingers are armed with sharp claws and the bird needs not only for movement, but also for protection. The inner toe of each foot has a claw up to 120 cm long. This claw is more like a dagger and is capable of hitting the enemy with one blow. Cassowaries are very aggressive birds and meeting with them is best avoided.