On reel species slightly less familiar to the look of the swift, it seems more "round". Depending on belonging to the subspecies, it can wear plumage of different colors.
So, canary finch it sports a bright yellow belly, its wings and back are decorated with brown stripes and spots, made in the form of a bizarre pattern.
Pictured canary finch
Snow finch has a more restrained appearance: its tummy is light beige, its back and wings are brown, the flight feathers can be painted black. Often snow finch compare with brownie a sparrow, as the birds are similar in plumage color.
Pictured is a bird snow finch
Red-capped reel does not differ much from the previous variety, but, as its name suggests, the bird's head is crowned with a bright red cap. Sometimes red or orange blotches are found on the wings.
In the photo there is a red-capped reel
One of the most beautiful representatives of the family is considered yellow bellied finch, whose tummy is sometimes acid yellow or pale yellow in color.
In the photo there is a yellow-bellied finch
Galapagos finches, whose name appeared because of their habitual habitat, also have a restrained brown color interspersed with dark spots and stripes. But in addition to color, they are distinguished by a more powerful beak.
Pictured is a Galapagos finch
Another remarkable fact about the last species of birds is their importance in the theory of evolution, for which they received a middle name - Darwin's finches... These small birds adapt extremely quickly to changing environmental conditions, they have acquired such resistance in the course of a long evolution.
Pictured is a Darwin's finch
In addition to the interspecies difference, sex is also pronounced. Females finches always less bright in appearance, this is due not only to the pallor of the plumage, but also to the lower contrast between the colors present in it.
That is why reel on the photo most often the male sex - it is more profitable to photograph males in terms of the brightness and effectiveness of the future photography. Have earthen finches females usually wear plumage different from males - males are almost black, while "representatives of the weaker sex" are grayish or dark brown.
In addition to the division into subspecies in appearance and gender, finches are distinguished by their way of life. Thus, in Europe there are migratory finches, which, with the onset of cold weather, leave their native places and fly away to winter in the Mediterranean.
Preferred living conditions for birds are bushy thickets and sufficient sunlight. That is, finches do not live in dense forests, choosing the outskirts of the forest, the countryside, and even city parks.
The nature and lifestyle of the finch
To build nests, finches carefully choose a place away from the tree trunk or deeper in bushes. This choice is obvious - this way you can protect future offspring from mammals and large feathered predators.
Some species prefer flock life, while others live in separate pairs. However, most often peaceful finches settle in the neighborhood not only with their own kind, but also with other species of birds.
The streamlined body shape and strong wings allow the bird to fly quickly and confidently. During the hunt, the finch can even make a mind-blowing maneuver to catch an insect that suddenly appears in the field of view on the fly. Finches living side by side with humans can gradually get used to and stop being afraid of people, feeding from feeders.
Climbing higher - to the top of a tree or the cornice of a tall building, singing finches beautiful songs are loudly singing. This melody sounds like a combination of trills and whistles, surprising listeners with a variety of sounds.
Listen to the voice of the finch
Today finches can be found as pets. Of course, only a bird living in such conditions from birth is an acceptable option for keeping a finch in captivity.
Unfortunately, the inquisitive nature and hunger sometimes lead the finches into traps, after which they are sold as raised in captivity. However, such birds, as a rule, do not feel comfortable in a cage and do not live long.
Buy a finch it is possible in a specialized pet store, only the presence of all documents and permits at the breeder can guarantee that the bird was not forcibly torn out of its natural habitat. It is best to start a couple of birds at once, since their gregarious nature does not tolerate loneliness.
When deciding to keep such a feathered home, you need to take care of the arrangement of the place of his life in advance. The cage should be large, with built-in branches, shelves, and swings.
Poultry should always have fresh drinking water freely available. It should be borne in mind that the characteristics of the body make only live food obligatory for consumption, so you need to stock up on live insects in advance. It is best to equip a separate room for them.
Various insects are the main food of finches. In winter, finches are fed from feeders, feeding on plant food. However, if there is no shortage of live food, the finches, of course, will not eat grains. After beetles, caterpillars and spiders are on the list of finches' favorite treats. In addition, birds can eat small nuts and seeds.
Reproduction and lifespan of the finch
The packs are representatives of monogamous couples. Most often, the pair is part of a large flock, sometimes interspecific. The male and female carefully choose a place and with all responsibility approach the arrangement of a neat small nest, weaving it from small twigs and grass.
The bottom and walls are covered with down, feathers and even animal hair. In some pairs, only the female is engaged in construction. Depending on belonging to a subspecies, there may be one or two clutches per year (sometimes even three). The female lays two to eight small, variegated eggs.
In some couples, incubation is carried out in turn - when one parent flies away to hunt, the other takes his place. In others, only the female performs the role of a brood hen, while the male obtains food for two.
However, with any incubation option, chicks hatch after 2 weeks (on average), which both parents continuously feed with digested insects or seeds until the babies themselves can get their own food. Life span finch birds - up to 15 years old.
Birds of Crimea
- Birds with the letter B
|Latin name:||Fringilla montifringilla|
|Genus:||To be specified|
|Body length:||14 cm|
|Wing length:||7 cm|
- 1 Description of the bird
- 2 Behavior and diet
- 3 Distribution and habitats
- 4 Migratory or wintering
- 5 Types
- 5.1 Canary finch
- 5.2 Mozambican finch
- 5.3 Snow finch
- 5.4 Red-capped reel or royal
- 5.5 Yellow-bellied finch
- 5.6 Galapagos finch
- 5.7 Large Cactus Finch
- 5.8 Sharp-Beaked Finch
- 5.9 Medium Ground Finch
- 5.10 Small Ground Finch
- 5.11 Mangrove tree finch
- 5.12 Woodpecker tree finch
- 5.13 Gray Reel
- 5.14 Damara-Alario
- 5.15 Alario
- 6 Male and female
- 7 Reproduction
- 8 Home maintenance
- 8.1 Cage requirements
- 8.2 Feeding the finches
- 9 Interesting facts
- 10 Singing
Description of the bird
The finch has a small body, the size of which does not exceed 14 cm in length. The weight is 17-20 grams. The plumage on the brisket is orange, but the back and neck change color - in winter these parts are painted gray-brown, and in summer they turn black.The beak is wide, although small in size. It is painted black. The paws are gray and very tenacious, with sharp claws. Males are always brighter than females.
Finches belong to the order of passerines, to the family of finches, to the genus of finches, to the species of finches.
The birds sing well, but their song is quiet and calm when they sit, but in flight they can give sharper sounds.
Behavior and diet
Finches are very interesting birds that are very different from each other. This is especially noticeable if we draw an analogy between their subspecies. There are birds that adapt to any weather conditions, and there are warmth-lovers - nomads to the South.
Interestingly, finches can nest in pairs or prefer life with a flock.
The place for the dwelling is chosen carefully - the shrubs fit perfectly. Birds love to hide their chicks from all prying eyes.
Insects dominate the diet of finches. Birds prefer real hunting - they catch small animals during the flight. By the way, finches are acrobats who are able to do air somersaults and flutter funny.
Distribution and habitats
Finches inhabit Scandinavia, Russia, Europe: Norway, Oslo, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, and some species choose the Azores, South Africa.
They build their nests near forests, parks, and vegetable gardens. Finches are not afraid of humans, so they can safely nest near human private houses if they are located near rivers or mixed forests.
Migratory or wintering
The finch belongs to migratory birds. Usually leaves the nest with the onset of autumn and returns in April - May, in different regions, this process is different. For the winter, it flies to southern Europe, Asia - Turkey, Iran, Turkmenistan, Japan, China.
There are several subspecies of finches in nature. Often, all, without exception, have a pronounced sexual dimorphism, which is observed in the brightness of the plumage of males.
A bird that lives from the Himalayas to the southern part of the Sahara. Body length 10-12 cm, weight 13-15 grams. It has a thick, short, dark gray beak. By the way, the canary finch is the smallest bird of the finch family common in Europe.
The bird has a bright and interesting color, green color predominates, the wings are brown, with small specks located on the back and sides of males, and in females this pigment is located on the brisket.
The bird lays two clutches throughout the year, each consisting of three to five eggs, which are incubated by one female.
It should be remembered that there are several subspecies of the canary finch, which differ in radically different colors.
A subspecies of the canary finch is the Mozambican finch. He lives in South Africa, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Mozambique. Has a more saturated color in which bright green, yellow colors prevail. Many locals keep this subspecies at home.
Mozambican finch nests in savannah, forests, parks. It feeds on small seeds, larvae, fruits, pulp.
He's an alpine or snow sparrow. Inhabits the Alps, the Balkans, the Caucasus, the Carpathian Mountains, Central and Central Asia. This subspecies is predominantly sedentary.
The nest is built high in the mountains, or in the rocks, while preserving the principle of settlement in flocks, not in pairs. Jumps abruptly and quickly on the ground.
The colors of the plumage of these birds are dominated by white and light gray colors on the lower part of the body and brown in the area of the wings. There is a pronounced dark speck on the neck. Sexual dimorphism in a couple is very weak and can manifest itself only in mating behavior.
The beak is slightly narrower than that of the canary subspecies, the bottom is colored yellow. The bird sings loudly and melodiously.
The diet includes seeds of alpine grasses, cereals, as well as insects, beetles, spiders.
Red-capped reel or royal
The bird lives in the highlands of the Caucasus, Turkey, Pakistan, Iran. Closer to winter, he moves to India, on the coast of the Aegean Sea.
Due to the unusual plumage, the bird is often kept in captivity, in addition, it sings well. The colors are dominated by black and gray colors, there is a red spot on the head that resembles a mohawk. Less commonly, red or orange streaks are present on the wings and brisket.
The bird feeds on small animals, as well as millet, seeds.
Yellow bellied finch
Breeds in South Africa, Angola. The bird chooses old shrubs and thickets as a favorite place for building a nest.
The plumage of this subspecies is characterized by the presence of bright yellow and green colors. On the wings there may be brown and white blotches, stripes, but the tummy is always completely yellow. The iris of the eye is black. The beak is medium in size, but powerful in width. It is light brown in color. Sexual dimorphism between the female and the male is strongly expressed and consists in a calmer coloring of the female - gray color predominates in it, without bright spots. Body length 13-14 cm, weight up to 17 grams.
He is also called Darwin, lives in the group of islands in the Pacific Ocean - on the Galapagos Islands. The bird is endemic and has about seven subspecies. They got their second name due to the ancient origin - more than 2.5-3 million years ago. Charles Darwin himself investigated finches from an evolutionary biology perspective.
Usually these finches do not reach more than 20 cm in body length, but very different from each other in the shape of the beak and plumage. Let's take a closer look at some of them.
Large cactus finch
Endemic to the Galapagos Islands. A notable feature of the bird is its large beak. Typically, male cactus finches are dressed in black plumage, while females are brown and white. Their beak is not as dark as that of males. It is interesting that this subspecies lives in cacti and is not at all afraid to be beaten. Birds feed on seeds and flowers from cacti, crickets.
It is a predatory, carnivorous bird that lives on the meat of other animals. The birds are also endemic and inhabit the islands of Darwin and Wolf.
Sharp-billed finches are bloodthirsty - hunting for their prey, they come up with a whole tactic, and when the prey is in their power, they begin to peck at it until blood begins to flow from the victim. The fact is that this subspecies of finches, thus, quenches thirst, because the islands are ruled by drought. Theft is not neglected either - they steal eggs from the nests of other birds and roll them on the ground until they are broken.
Medium ground finch
This is a very healthy bird, it cleanses the skin of animals such as elephants and turtles.
This bird has a strong and large beak with an orange tip. The plumage is black, as are the eyes.
The bird prefers seeds, berries, less often uses insects.
Small earthen finch
This bird is the smallest of all the subspecies that live on the islands - only 10-11 cm in body length. They are also endemic.
They inhabit arid forests, shrubs, sometimes nest near the mountains, where they remain for the entire mating season. It feeds on berries, leaves, flowers.
Birds destroy harmful insects from the bodies of other animals.
Mangrove tree finch
This is a very rare subspecies, endemic. The birds inhabit Isabella Island and are under conservation status. The population of this species is 60-140 individuals.
The mangrove finch is gray, nondescript color, the tummy has olive plumage. The beak is black, large, and the eyes are round. The wings and tail of this subspecies are rounded.
The bird gets food very interestingly - with the help of branches in its beak, it digs into the ground in search of spiders or small bugs.
Woodpecker tree finch
A very interesting and funny bird that gets food with the help of a thorn from a cactus, which he skillfully wields in its beak.
The bird's body length is 15 cm, weight - up to 20 grams.
In the family of blackbird finches, patriarchy reigns - only the male stands for the nest, and both parents are engaged in incubation. Chicks hatch after 12-13 days.
The bird is also endemic.
The owner of a powerful voice and great singing talent. It inhabits Africa, where it is very popular among the locals. The people also call him noble. Coloring - gray, nondescript, sexual dimorphism is not expressed in any way.
A very bright and beautiful bird from the finch family. But, unfortunately, their population only decreases over the years. Breeds in Southwest Africa. It got its name from the Damara tribe, in whose territory it lives.
A songbird discovered by scientists in the 18th century. The plumage is present: black, red and brown. The bird has a calm character, is not shy and sings great.
Male and female
Finches are monogamous birds, but they never neglect life in the flock. A large company of relatives does not prevent them from saving a lasting marriage until the end of their days. Depending on the species, both one male and the female are engaged in building a nest, but sometimes both birds do this process.
There are cardinal differences between the subspecies, so there can be no verdict regarding sexual dimorphism. In some subspecies it is weakly expressed, while in others it is distinctly.
Depending on the subspecies, finches are capable of laying eggs either once or twice a year. The offspring consists of two to eight future chicks. Eggs are also of different colors, but more often white.
The brooding period lasts about two weeks. Mostly, the female incubates the eggs alone, but sometimes the spouse replaces her, while the production of food still lies on his shoulders. Two people take care of the comfort of the home nest. By the way, the finch nest has a very neat shape and is woven from twigs and grass.
Both parents are engaged in feeding chicks. After about fifteen days, chicks become adult birds and can make their first attempts to fly.
You need to know that a small chick is better suited for life in a cage, rather than a caught adult bird. Finches do not tolerate loneliness, so it is better to take a couple or several birds.
The average lifespan of a finch is fifteen years, but the bird must be well looked after.
Buy a large and spacious cage, no less than 80 x 60 x 80. You can choose a material made of metal, but do not forget to stick twigs or stems between the poles of the cage - finches are very fond of greenery.
Place the cage in a sunny spot and take care of the fresh air, but not the draft.
Feeding the finches
Do not forget about a full vessel of water - birds like to drink water often.
As a treat, the pet can be fed with small nuts. Be sure to buy live food at a pet store, it can be spiders, beetles, geese. Small animals form the basis of the poultry diet. You can also feed it with millet or cereals.
- Finches are able to change their colors, depending on the season.
- Birds of this genus range from peaceful ones to carnivores that feed on the blood of other animals.
- Finches prefer to live in flocks. Even at home, they can be settled in an aviary with other birds, but only chicks, not adults.
- The finches that live on the Galapagos Islands are endemic, their population is very small.
- These birds are very hot-tempered and capable of fighting with other birds. But in general, they are very sociable and cannot stand loneliness.
Their songs turn on the mood. therefore they are always different. In flight, they give out a screaming: "vzhya", "chi-chi-chi", sitting on the nest: "chzhzhzh". In general, the song during the mating season consists of a complex whistle and creak, quiet chirping.
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